Ssese Island project on Bilharzia Prevention & Control

Club Name: – Rotary Club of Kampala Ssese Islands


Project Title: – Ssese Islands Project for Bilharzia Prevention and Control


Area of focus: –

  1. Water Sanitation and Hygiene
  2. Disease Prevention and Control


Project Location: – Kalangala District (Ssese Islands), Uganda


Project duration: – 3 Years (2021 – 2023)


Background and Project justification

Kalangala District is entirely made up of 84 islands widely scattered in Lake Victoria over a total area of 9,066.8 sq. km, of which 432.1 sq. km (4.8%) is land and the rest is water mass. And this is what is referred to as Ssese Islands. It is estimated that 80% of the population aged 10 years and above are engaged in Fisheries and Agriculture as a livelihood. In Kalangala district: Household or communal latrine coverage is 56%, 8.2%  is Households without any toilet facility, 55.8% of mothers (0-11months) have safe source of drinking water, 49.4% of women (15-49 yrs.) have safe source of drinking water, 46% of men (15-59 yrs.) have safe source of drinking water, only 36.8% men and 32.6% women have water and soap observed near the toilet or latrine.

According to WHO, Schistosomiasis is a NTD that ranks second only to malaria in terms of human suffering in the tropics and subtropics. Five species are known to infect man and there are currently over 260 million people infected worldwide. About 779 million people – more than 10% of the world’s population – were at risk of being infected with schistosomiasis in mid-2019. Over 4 million people are estimated to be infected with Schistosomiasis in Uganda and about 55% of the population of 44 million are thought to be at risk, The infection rates vary widely, from 92% in some areas like Kalangala district to as little as 2% in others especially on land.

The schistosomiasis transmission starts when people are exposed to infested water bodies throughout routine agricultural, domestic, occupational, and recreational activities. When infected people urinate or defecate in freshwater sources. The lack of proper sanitation and hygiene facilities increases the risk of contaminating the water bodies. The basic means of preventing Schistosoma infection is avoiding contact with fresh water infested with Schistosome parasites. Contact with infected water however, cannot always be avoided, especially by people in endemic areas whose occupation is fishing, sand mining, as well as women who may be exposed to infected waters when performing their domestic chores or day-to-day activity exposes them to these waters.


The Problem

Lack of safe water, sanitation and hygiene remains one of the world’s most urgent health issues. Almost one tenth of the global disease burden could be prevented by improving water supply, sanitation, hygiene and management of water resources. An understanding of the social and behavioral factors linked to schistosomiasis transmission and control should play a vital role in designing policies and strategies for such a disease of poverty. People can reduce their risk of Schistosomiasis infection by defecating and urinating in toilets or latrines and never in or near a fresh water body. The defection behaviors of an individual are more strongly associated with infection status than the household water and sanitation infrastructure, indicating the importance of incorporating behavior change into community led total sanitation coverage and control of Schistosomiasis.

According to the Health center II constructed by the Rotary Club of Kampala-Ssese Islands and currently supporting mass screening and treatment campaigns of Bilharzia of all the residents of Ddagye catchment area, the project implementation has registered considerable success and by the end of 2019, the results for the total number of people screened for Bilharzia indicated a prevalence of 82%

Therefore, this project will implement critical WASH activities including provision of latrines, safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene services for Ssese Island Bilharzia infected landing site communities to reduce incidence of acute Bilharzia and other water borne diseases.


Project will construct public latrines, new drinking water systems and rehabilitate the existing water infrastructure in targeted communities. Community members will contribute by providing the labour and other locally available resources to carry out the work. Selected Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) facilitators, Village Health Teams (VHTs) and community leaders will be trained in the maintenance of the water infrastructure.

The project will also focus on improving basic sanitation and hygiene practices primarily through implementation of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach which intends to mobilize community leaders in leading community based actions for schistosomiasis prevention and control through improved hygiene and sanitation in Ssese Island populations. The project will support with provision of low costs latrines for female headed households to promote equity in sanitation and hygiene services. The project methodology includes conducting rapid assessment of WASH infrastructure, conducting a study on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices associated with prevention and control of Schistosomiasis, conducting of extensive hygiene and sanitation awareness events with the target communities over the entire period of project. These trainings will facilitate behavior change concerning water usage, hygiene and sanitation and prevention of waterborne diseases including Schistosomiasis. All project activities will prioritize local capacity building and will be undertaken in close collaboration with local authorities such as village leaders, community development councils, religious and cultural leaders, teachers and women groups, men, women, boys and girls.



The aim: This project will improve access to latrine use, safe water, appropriate sanitation facilities and positive Bilharzia preventive and control initiatives, whilst building local capacity and leadership through the construction and rehabilitation of water and sanitation infrastructure in Ssese Islands- Kalangala district. Rotary Club of Kampala-Ssese Islands will also work with community members to promote and monitor improved personal, domestic and environmental hygiene practices.


Specific Objectives

  1. To raise awareness and access to quality Schistosomiasis prevention and prevention practices and services;
  2. To create an open defecation free environment through construction of public latrines;
  3. To Increase sanitation and hygiene practices and coverage in beneficiary schools through construction of new latrines, upgrading/transformation of existing latrines and provision of associated sanitary facilities;
  4. To improve availability and access of clean and safe drinking water at landing sites and beneficiary schools;
  5. To provide disability inclusive WASH facilities at landing sites and beneficiary schools;
  6. To strengthen capacity and community structures on Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and Safe School-led Total Sanitation (SLTS) and Urban Total Sanitation (UTS) in Kalangala district;


Planned Activities.


  1. Action launch meeting;
  2. Conduct Baseline study (Rapid assessment) to establish the status and coverage of WASH facilities in Kalangala District. The assessment will provide guidance for strategic planning and implementation of the project considering priority sub counties;
  3. Conduct a Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices survey associated with prevention and control of Schistosomiasis in Kalangala district. KAP survey will be conducted in the beginning and end of project to establish the extent of changes in access to water, storage and water; treatment methods, and key sanitation and hygiene practices promoted by the project;
  4. Develop curriculum and tailor-make training resources;
  5. Conduct trainings including create awareness on the relevance of latrine usage towards Bilharzia control;
  6. Construct Nine public latrines in 6 sub counties and Town council;
  7. Installation of 30 (10,000-liter capacity) reservoir tanks to harvest water;
  8. Deliver capacity-enhancement trainings
  9. Develop policy briefs
  10. Provide sufficient safe water to communities via construction/rehabilitation of water points (Wells, water catchments, pipe scheme facilitated, springs protected) ;
  11. Support for provision of sufficient, appropriate sanitation facilities;
  12. Implement hygiene promotion activities;
  13. Provide critical WASH services to landing site Schistosomiasis ­affected population;
  14. WASH management group members and committees revitalized and trained;
  15. Creation of WASH groups;
  16. Distribute chlorine and aqua tabs to 1500 households;
  17. Household benefit on improved WASH programmes and functioning sanitation facility;
  18. Awareness events for school children on Hygiene and sanitation promotion activities;
  19. Provide hygiene and sanitation kits;
  20. Training of Health Hygiene promoters trained in CLTS methodology;
  21. Conduct hygiene, Schistosomiasis and awareness campaigns;
  22. Upgrade of 2 existing latrines to include a room for menstrual hygiene management and handwashing stations and facilities for disabled children;
  23. Provision of standard Water Sand Filters to improve utilization of purified and clean rainwater
  24. Support the facilitation process in which villages mobilize local resources and or advocate for other resources needed for the implementation of activities in the village hygiene and sanitation plan;
  25. Provide culturally appropriate IEC (Information Education Communication) materials to WASH groups and CHWs for hygiene and sanitation awareness;
  26. Provide hygiene kits to 1000 active women in the villages, which are showing positive progress in regards to implementation of CLTS activities and one hygiene kit to WASH groups members and CHWs to support their work on promoting appropriate hygiene behaviors.


Project Beneficiaries

Direct beneficiary are men, women, boys and girls of the households who will directly access water and sanitation services delivered from the project and people directly reached by the hygiene and sanitation awareness activities conducted from WASH groups Women







Implementation Plan

Project implementation schedule.

No. Activity Duration Duration Duration  
    Q1 Q2 Q3 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q1 Q2 Q3
  Mobilisation advocacy and Health education for local councils and District heads of Department                  
  Health education for students and resident                  
  Health education training for teacher                  
  Development of health education materials                  
  Translate and customize the Bilharzia prevention communication strategy based on the EPPM                  
  Media campaign (focused on two primary audiences)                  
  Establishment of billboards                  
  Construction of Public Latrines                  
  Community mobilization and sensitization to embrace WASH at household level                  
  Supply of drinking water                  
  Supply of Aqua tablets to schools and homes with school going girl child as an incentive to encourage retention in schools.                  
  Capacity enhancement of RCKSI members in Social work skills and Community Engagement                  
  Monitoring and consultation                  
  Learning and Extension workshops                  



Estimated Budget

No. Item/Activity Description Cost(Ugx) Cost(USD)
1 Selection and mobilisation meetings (Community Engagement)


Advocacy to all stakeholders 30,300,000


2 Infrastructure Development


-Construct 9 public latrines, rehabilitation of School latrines, girls bathroom, water tanks installation, Hygiene kits, IEC materials.






3 Stationary


PrInting paper, pens, note books and cartiridge,


750,000 200
4 Support Services


Doctors, Nurses, VHTs, Social Workers, Local Leaders.                   48,600,000




5 Develop curriculum and tailor-make training resources


Curriculum Development and Printing                     9,000,000




6 Mobilization


Action launch, hygiene promotion activities, awareness events for school children on Hygiene and sanitation. Radio Announcements and Jiggles, Banners, Tear Drops and Communication Costs                         41,000,000




7 Develop Behavior change communication and IEC materials messages on WASH & Schistosomiasis T-Shirts, Posters and Fact Sheets, Talking Billboards (Publicity, Branding and Visibility Costs)

Translation costs





8 Training Costs


WASH management group members and committees revitalized and trained

Training of Health Hygiene promoters trained in CLTS methodology

65,100,000 17,360
  TOTAL   595,250,000 158,733

Contact Persons

President Elect 2022/2023                                                                        Chair, Service Projects

David Roger Kintu                                                                                       Chris Kayongo

+256772445995                                                                                          +256772448668