Clubs Names: Rotary Clubs of Kampala-Ssese Islands
Project Title: Improvement of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in 27 schools
in Kalangala District
Project duration: – The project will be completed in 3 years (2020 – 2023)
Areas of focus: –
a. Water and Sanitation
b. Peace and Conflict Resolution
Project Location: – Kalangala district (Ssese Islands), Central Uganda
Studies have shown that 50% of child morbidity in Uganda is due to poor hygiene and
sanitation. In 1997, over 1,200 school children died because of poor sanitation
conditions at school during the 1997 cholera outbreak. As a result, 560 primary schools
around the country were closed because they lacked acceptable WASH facilities. The
World Bank Water and Sanitation Program (WSP 2012) estimated that Uganda loses
Shs. 389 billion (about USD$130.5m) which is equivalent to 1.1% of GDP every year
due to poor sanitation. Though the country developed a school WASH strategic plan
in 2006, its implementation remains weak due to limited funding. There is no national
budget allocation for WASH in schools, save for isolated funding for sanitation,
especially the school facility grant that goes towards construction of latrines. Moreover,
the inadequate sanitation situation in schools has been exacerbated by the
implementation of Universal Primary and Education policies which entitles all school
age children to free education, causing the number of students per latrine stance ratio
to skyrocket, reaching 400:1 in some schools.
Studies have shown that investments in WASH have a direct impact on the health and
wellbeing of the population by reducing water and sanitation-related illnesses like
diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, cholera and hepatitis that kill hundreds, especially
children, who are most vulnerable. Improved WASH in schools also translates into
increased enrollment and attendance rates.
Kalangala district (also called Ssese Islands) is located in Lake Victoria with a total of
84 islands. It has an area coverage of 9,066.8 sq. km out of which only 432.1 sq. km
(4.8%) is land. Bugala is the biggest island in the district with 296 sq. km of land,
representing 68.5 percent of the district land mass. Sixty-four out of 84 islands in the
district are inhabited with an estimated population of 66,300 (2012 Estimate).
A needs assessment study conducted in May 2018 in 8 schools on Buggala island in
Kalangala district identified big gaps in the water and sanitation situation. There was
inadequate availability and access to safe water; access to, use and maintenance of
hygienic latrines was poor; availability and use of washrooms for use by girls during
menstruation as well as hand washing facilities were lacking; pits for solid waste
disposal were missing; and the knowledge, attitudes and practice of pupils were
wanting. Inadequate water sources were also noted to be a cause of conflict between
the local community and some schools.The study showed that:-
• The principal source of safe water in 50% of the schools was through rainwater
harvesting. In 30% of these institutions, the facilities were either broken down or
needed some form of repair.
• All the schools lacked a fence. Hence, 4 schools reported some form of conflict
with local communities over water use. Local communities allegedly draw water
from these institutions forcefully, leading to frequent water shortages; and
damage to the water facilities.
• Latrines were present in all the schools; but only 50% of the latrines had doors.
So half of the latrines in the schools had no privacy.
• The majority of the pupils said that they used the latrines but only one school met
the recommended pupil to latrine cubicle ratio of 40:1. In the remaining schools,
ratios were between 50:1 and 90:1.
• Only 50% of schools had latrines assigned to girls only or boys only. In 2 out of
the 8 schools, teachers and students shared toilets.
• Only 2 schools had washrooms for use during menstruation but even these were
makeshift structures that lacked doors for privacy.
• Only 3 schools had improvised hand washing facilities next to the latrines. But
even these lacked water at the time of the visit.
• 75% of the school had urinals. Of these, 40% were smelly with flies and were
• Solid waste disposal other than faeces was said not to be a major problem; though
only 2 schools had refuse pits.
• Sanitation and hygiene knowledge among the pupils was relatively low. 30%
reported knowledge of diarrhea-related diseases and only a few knew that cholera
was due to poor sanitation.
• Regarding sources of information on sanitation, 90% of students mentioned
teachers as the main source, although 50% of the teachers reported that they had
not received any training on sanitation.
• Educational materials present in the schools were posters (50%) and books
(50%). Where posters were available, they were not pinned in strategic places.
The project therefore seeks to improve safe water access and coverage by creating
more water supply sources and facilities as well as repairing broken ones; to enhance
sanitation and hygiene by constructing and rehabilitating pit latrines, girls’ washrooms
and hand washing facilities; and to improve garbage and waste disposal by providing
garbage pits. To minimize conflict with the local communities, the project will
protect/repair 15 community water points/wells. This will be in addition to planting live
fences around the premises of the schools. The project will also raise hygiene
awareness and promote behavioral change. Peaceful co-existence between the
schools and the local communities will also be promoted. The project will also address
the district and local structures capacity gaps in planning and implementing WASH
programs in schools and the local communities.
1. To improve access to safe water through roof rainwater harvesting and repair
of broken water facilities
2. To enhance sanitation and hygiene by constructing and rehabilitating pit
latrines, provision of girls’ washrooms and handwashing facilities; and provision
of refuse disposal pits.
3. To promote peaceful co-existence between the schools and the local
communities through sensitization and provision and protection/repair of
community water points.
4. To improve security of the schools through planting live fences around their
a. 27 Schools: – (24 primary and 3 secondary)
✓ 10,000 school going children in the schools
✓ 600 community members around the schools
✓ 270 teachers and staff
✓ School Management Committees, PTAs, School children Clubs
✓ Kalangala District Local Government, particularly education and health.
✓ Local businessmen
a) Water, sanitation and Hygiene hardware facility development
1. Procurement and installation of 10,000lt. capacity plastic water tanks in 20
2. Repair of 18 broken down water tanks in schools (including replacement of
gutters and water taps)
3. Protection/repair of 15 community water points/wells
4. Construction of appropriate pit latrines with urinals for boys and separate
washrooms for girls in 12 schools; and provide separate latrines with
washrooms for 15 schools
5. Construction of hand washing points and provision of safe water drinking
facilities in 27 schools
6. Digging of garbage pits in 20 schools
7. Establishment of separate girls changing rooms for menstrual hygiene
management in 12 schools
b) Behavioral change communication for improved WASH
1. Establishment of hygiene committees in schools and surrounding
2. Training of mentoring teachers and school club leaders on hygiene
management and monitoring.
3. Conducting hygiene promotional campaigns in schools and surrounding
communities through MDD events and competitions led by children and
4. Adapting and printing of IEC materials including posters as well as “talking”
5. Media campaigns for example district and national radio talk shows with
spot messages and jingles on WASH
6. Support to and participation in district and national level WASH events.
c) Capacity Building for WASH stakeholders
1. Promotion of personal and general hygiene in schools and surrounding
2. Conduction of district inception meeting for buy-in, alignment with District
Development Plans and role and responsibility allocation
3. Review of district capacity status and develop a joint capacity building plan
4. Implementation of the plan including trainings.
d) Establishment of live plant fences in 20 schools
1. Improved health and wellbeing of the school children and the local communities
as a result of reduction in water and sanitation-related illnesses.2. Improved awareness and understanding by the school children, teachers and
the local communities of the need for good hygiene practices.
3. Increased school enrollment and attendance rates
4. Improved peaceful co-existence between the schools and the local
5. Improved security at schools
6. Time saving by women and children for other family chores due to reduced
distances that will be travelled to fetch water
7. Reduced expenses by communities on health costs for diseases that are
related to poor sanitation and hygiene
8. Improved personal hygiene
Budget Estimates US$
Procurement and installation of plastic water tanks in schools – 50,000
Repairs of broken water tanks in schools – 18,000
Protection/repair of community water points/wells – 20,000
Construction of pit latrines and hand washing facilities – 85,000
Digging of garbage pits – 4,000
Behavioral change communication – 22,000
Capacity building for WASH stakeholders – 12,500
Provision of fences to schools – 10,000
Monitoring and Supervision – 5,000
PR – 2,000
TOTAL – 228,500
Financing Plan: – through a Global Grant (the financing plan will be agreed upon by
the host and international partners)
Ethel Mamawi Kayongo Nelson Kabwama David Kintu
+256 772 618374 +256 774 130341 +256 772 445995
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